Revisiting IPOs

I’ve written several times (here, here and here) that the IPO pop is unfair to existing shareholders¬†since they end up selling the stock cheaper than necessary. Responses I’ve received to this (not all on the blog comments) have mostly been illogical and innumerate, talking about how the pop “increases the value of the entrepreneurs’ holdings”, and that the existing shareholder¬†“should be happy that the value has gone up” rather than wondering why he sold his shares at the low value.

Thinking about this in the context of the impending Cafe Coffee Day IPO, I realised that a pop is necessary (though not maybe to the extent of the MakeMyTrip and LinkedIn pops), because investors need some incentive to invest in the IPO rather than buying the stock in the secondary market after listing.

Secondary markets have superior price discovery compared to primary markets since the former have several (close to infinite) attempts at price discovery, while the latter have only one attempt. Also, prices in the secondary market change “slowly” (compared to the price difference between primary and secondary market), so even if someone has invested at a price they later have dissonance with, they can reverse the investment without incurring a high cost.

For this reason, if you want to invest in a company and want to know that you are paying a “fair price”, investing in secondary markets is superior to investing in primary markets. In other words, you need a higher incentive in order to buy in primary markets. And this incentive is provided to you in the form of the IPO pop.

In other words, the IPO pop is an incentive paid to the IPO buyer in exchange for investing at a time when the price discovery is in a sense incomplete and cannot be particularly trusted.¬†Rather than pricing the IPO at what bankers and bookbuilders think is the “fair price”, they will price it at a discount, which offers IPO investors insurance against the bankers having made a mistake in their pricing of the IPO.

And how much to underprice it (relative to any “fair price” that the bankers have discovered) is a function of how sure the bankers are about the fair price they have arrived at. The greater their confidence in such a price, the smaller the pop they need to offer (again, this is in theory since investors need not know what fair price bankers have arrived at).

The examples I took while arguing that the IPO pop is unfair to existing shareholders were MakeMyTrip and LinkedIn, both pioneers in some sense. LinkedIn was the first major social network to go public, much before Facebook or Twitter, and thus there was uncertainty about its valuation, and it gave a big pop.

MakeMyTrip was a travel booking site from India listing on NASDAQ, and despite other travel sites already being public, the fact that it was from an “emerging market” possibly added to its uncertainty, and the resulting high pop.

So I admit it. I was wrong on this topic of IPO pops. They do make sense, but from a risk perspective. Nothing about “wealth of existing shareholders increases after the pop”.